Har Gobind Khorana also known as the “Father of Artificial Genetics“. He received Nobel Prize in 1972 for his Discovery of Gene pattern and its role in photosynthesis. He explained genetic code structure and its function to his co-workers.
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Table of Contents
Har Gobind Khorana biography
Dr Hargovind Khurana was an Indian American, belong to a Punjabi Hindu family. He born in Raipur village of Multan, Punjab in British India to Ganpat Rai Khurana and Krishna Devi Khurana. As per the documents available his date of birth is 9th January 1922.
Dr Hargobind Khorana had four siblings and he was the youngest one. His father was a British Indian government employee in tax department as a clerk known as Patwari. He studied in a village school under the tree. Altho he belongs to a poor family but his father was dedicated to educate his children.
|NAME||HAR GOBIND KHORANA|
|Date of Birth||9th January 1922 (As per documents)|
|Place of Birth|| Raipur, Multan, Punjab, British India|
( presently in Pakistan Punjab)
|Father’s name||Ganpat Rai Khorana|
|Mother’s name||Krishna Devi Khorana|
|Wife’s name||Esther Elizabeth Sibler|
1. Julia Elizabeth Emily
2. Emily Anne
3. Dave Roy
|Died on||9th November 2011|
Har Gobind Khorana education
- As we said above that Har gobind started his education by learning in a village school where he took his primary education by sitting and studying under the tree, as this was the only school in his village.
- He completed his high school from Dayanand Anglo Vedic (DAV) school Multan, west Punjab.
- Khurana took this scholarship and completed his graduation in 1943 from Punjab University Lahore after that Masters degree in science in 1945.
- In 1945 Khurana received a government of India Fellowship to study abroad and he went to England to the University of Liverpool to study organic chemistry.
- Khurana completed his PhD in 1948 by the advice of Roger J. S. Beer.
- Then he went to ETH Zurich in Switzerland to study Post Doctoral courses. While studying there he worked unpaid for about 1 year and was researching on alkaloid chemistry.
Har Gobind Khorana family, wife, mother name
After completing his study in abroad, Khorana came back in 1949 to India and was unable to find suitable job as per his education in the hometown Punjab. Then he decided to return to England, he approached there and got a Fellowship work for George wallace kenner and Alexander R.
There he used to study and research on nucleotides and peptides. In 1952 he migrated to England with his entire family after getting the position British Columbia research Council at University of British Columbia.
Har Gobind Khorana experiment
While working with University of British Columbia Khurana was very much excited for starting up his own lab. There he got all the freedom to work on, as the Council had few facilities at that time but he got permission to work freely.
As per the American Chemical Society, Khorana researched and worked on nucleic acids and the synthesis of biomolecules. He became Co-Director at the institute of Enzyme Research in University of Wisconsin, Madison in 1960 after that in 1962 he became the professor of Biochemistry.
According to American Chemical Society Khorana worked for knowing the mechanism of RNA codes and its role of synthesis of protein. He also started synthesizing functional genes.
Har Gobind Khorana noble prize
When Har Gobind was working there the university got the Nobel Prize for the work he did in his tenure and it was mentioned on the website of Nobel Prize that
Khurana made important contribution to the field of building different RNA chains with the help of enzymes, using these enzymes he was able to produce proteins, the Amino acid sequence of these proteins then solved the rest of the puzzle.official website of Nobel Prize
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Har Gobind Khorana contribution
Khorana’s research on genetic code has became the base model as the first ever research document of this Discovery and is being studied now too for the research to advance level and advancing genome
Har Gobind Khorana invention, discovery
Khorana invented the structure of RNA, he explained how amino acids are bound alternatively to repeating units and make a chain. He also explain the genetic quotes of repeating units in which UAG, UAA or UGA connect with each other with dipeptides and tripeptide.
After studying and researching for years in 1972 Khurana completed the total synthesis of functional gene outside from any living organism. He used polymerase and ligase enzymes to connect the pieces of DNA all together and introduced by assembling first synthetic genes, this was the fabulous achievement in the history of chemistry and biochemistry world.
Har Gobind Khorana is known for
Har Gobind Khurana is known as the father of artificial genetics, he took Nobel Prize for his work on the total synthesis of genes outside from any living substance. He is also known for the demonstration for the first time of the role of nucleotides in protein synthesis. As per the statement of University of Wisconsin:
Har Gobind Khorana was an early practitioner and perhaps a founding father of the field of chemical biology. He brought the power of chemical synthesis to bear on deciphering the genetic code, relying on different combinations of trinucleotides.University of Wisconsin
Har Gobind Khorana Awards
- Nobel prize in medicine in 1968
- Albert Laskar Award for Basic Medical Research
- Padma Vibhushan
- Willard Gibbs Award in 1974
- Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize ForMeMRS in 1978
- Gairdner Foundation International Award in 1980
- Paul Kayser international Award of Merit for Retina Research in 1987
- I remember on 9th January 2018 on 96th birthday of Har Gobind Khorana, Google celebrated the achievement of khoranna bye Google Doodle.
Har Gobind Khorana death
Khurana died in Concord, Massachusetts on 9th November 2011 when he was 89 years old. His wife and his daughter Emily died before him.
Har Gobind Khorana books
Khurana wrote in his autobiography that when he was a kid his family was very poor and the only thing, that his father was dedicated to educate his children. When he was studying in a village’s school, he used to study under the tree and he did not have even a pencil untill the age of 6 years.
He published his research and experiment documents in a book named “Chemical Biology 2000″.
Why did Dr Har Gobind Khorana receive the Nobel Prize?
Dr Hargobind Khorana received the Nobel Prize in 1968 for physiology or medicine along with his two workers Martial W. Nirenberg from Cornell University and another one is Robert W. Holley from National Institute of Health. They received the prize all along for the discovery of genetic code and its functions of photosynthesis
When did Har Gobind Khorana Discover DNA?
In 1972 Har Gobind Khorana discovered DNA by completing the total synthesis of a functional gene outside the living cell of any organism.
Who is the father of artificial genetics?
Dr Har Gobind Khorana is the person who made first artificial gene in the year of 1972. When Har Govind Khorana with his co-workers explained and demonstrated yeast tRNA. Thus, the father of artificial Genetics is non another than doctor Har Gobind Khorana.